CHAPTER-IV - RURAL DEVELOPMENT
The basic objective of the Rural Development Programmes has been alleviation of poverty and unemployment through training and subsidy to Rural unemployed youth and to provide employment to marginal farmers/labourers to discourage migration from villages. With a view to achieve this basic objective, various programmes of Rural Development are being implemented under centrally sponsored schemes with the support of GOI.
Under the decentralised planning process, Rural Development Programmes have assumed greater significance as their implementation have been transferred to the representative institutions of Local Govt.
2. Ninth Five Year Plan & Annual Plan 1997-98
- The Strategy adopted for implematation of these programmes is as per the guide lines of the Govt. of India. These programmes and their objective / Strategy are as under :-
2.1 Rural Development Programmes :
a. Inteqrated Rural Development Prgramme Now SJGSY (Swarna Jayanti Gram Swaraj Yojna) -
i. IRDP is the major poverty alleviation programme in the field of Rural Development . The objective of this programme was to provide productive assets to identified rural poor to enable them to cross the poverty line. For income generating assets, the beneficiaries are provided financial assistance in the form of subsidy by the govt.and term credit advance by financial institutions. The programme is being implemented in all the Development Blocks of the State.
ii. The associated programme of IRDP is TRYSEM , which is basically a training programme for rural youth (age group 18-35) for families identified below the poverty line. Under TRYSEM, trainees are provided financial assistance through IRDP.
iii.TRYSEM infrastructure is a scheme to provide infrastructural facilities. It envisages to set up mini ITI at each Block Headqurater where there is no other institutions. 66 mini ITI's has been sanctioned in the State.
The entire IRDP programme is C.S.S. with 50% assistance from Govt. of India.
b. Rural Employment Programme : Now JGSY (Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojna) -
i. The primary objective of the programme is generation of additional gainful employment for the unemployed and the under-employed in rural areas, the thrust of the programme being on weaker sections and women. The secondary objective is creation of sustained employment by strengthening the rural economic infrastructure and assets.
ii. The strategy for implementation of REP was modified from 1993-94 to ensure better implementation, especially to achieve the target of providing substantial employment per person in backward districts, where there is concentration of unemployed and under-employed persons.
iii.Central Assistance of 80% was available in all these programmes. The following schemes are being implemented under this programme :-
B-I: Jawahar Rojgar Yojna -
- 65 % of this scheme is implemented through Gram Panchayats, 20 % through Zila Panchayats and 15 % through Janpad Panchayats. Under the scheme 40% of funds are to be spent on materials and 60% on wages.
B-II : Indira Awas Yojna :
- This scheme is scheme is meant for construction of houses to houseless families of rural areas implemented through beneficiaries. From the year 1997-98 this grant for construction of house & infrastructure has been raised to Rs. 20000 per house.
B-III : Million Wells Scheme : -
Under this scheme, grant for construction of irrigation well is given to individiual beneficiaries living below poverty line and having land not more than 2 hectares. Freed Bonded Labour are given top priority.
B-IV : Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS)
- The Employment Assurance Scheme is being implemented in the State since 2nd October 1993. Under this scheme, there will be assured employment for those who are in need of work for at least 100 days in a year, particularly during the lean agricultural season. In the process of generating employment to the needy rural poor, economic infrastructure and community assets of permanent nature are also being created. From Ist. April 1997 this scheme is being implemented in all 459 blocks of State.
C : Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP)
- The objective of the scheme is to maintain ecological balance and ensure maximum utilisation of land, water, livestock & human resources in areas which are prone to drought. Since 1995-96 D.P.A.P. is being implemented in 133 blocks of 25 districts on the basis of new guidelines, giving greater emphasis to Water-shed Development. The G.O.I. has given a physical target of 1151 milli water-sheds to be taken-up in 133 Blocks of 25 Districts @ Rs. 20.00 lakh per water-shed. This is a C.S.S. scheme with G.O.I. assistance on different items in different rates.
This State sector scheme has been merged in Indira Awas Yojna. A small provision is provided only for acquisition of land for house sites, under State Plan, as it might be difficult to make public land available for private housing.
The Community Development Programme is fully financed from the State resources. The substantial portion of the outlay of this sub-sector is earmarked for direction and administration. A part of the outlay is also utilised for strengthening of the administrative infrastructure, establishment of training Centres, local development, strengthening of Rural Engineering Services (RES) etc.
The following institutions are supported through this programme.
i. Mahatma Gandhi State Institute of Rural Dev. as Jabalpur.
ii. Extension Training Centres at Bhopal, Indore, Ujjian , Gwalior, Multai (Betul) Naugaon (Chhatarpur) and chandrakhuri (Raipur).
3.1 The financial provisions approved for Ninth Plan & Annual Plan and expenditure incurred during 1997-98 for various Rurar Development Programmes are as under :-
(Rs. in lakh) ---------------------------------------------------------- Sr.No. Name of scheme 9th Plan Annual Plan 1997-98 Approved Expenditure outlay --------------------------------------------------------- 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ----------------------------------------------------------
1. IRDP 43096 8100 6479.97 2. DPAP 3371 721 1596.60 3. JRY 88785 19122 15713.78 4. Rural 607 130 44.24 Housing 5. Community 234 581 603.84 Development --------------------------------------------------------- TOTAL = 136093 28654 24438.43 ---------------------------------------------------------
3.3 During the Ninth Five Year Plan under IRDP about 3.22 lakh families were proposed to be assisted for self employment & 172125 persons will be provided training under TRYSEM.
Under JRY & Allied Schemes about 3433 lakh mandays employment was proposed to be generated depending upon the availability of funds from GOI.
Under Indira Awas Yojna a target for construction of about 4.66 lakh of houses was proposed for SC/ST/other houseless families in rural areas. Further some 1.32 lakh irrigation wells were proposed to be constructed under Million Wells scheme during Ninth Five Year Plan. Under DPAP 1151 milli watersheds are proposed.
Annual Plan 1997-98 -
3.4 During 1997-98 under IRDP Rs. 1.39 lakh families have been assisted and loan subsidy of Rs. 300.44 crores were distributed. Under TRYSEM some 14125 rural youths have beentrained for self employment. Construction works of 36 Mini ITI's are under completion to facilitate the training work.
- Under Jawahar Rojgar Yojna 470.56 lakh mandays employment have been generated. Additional employment generation of about 596.87 lakh mandays have also been achieved under Employment Assurance Scheme.
- Under Indira Awas Yojna 1124.36 families were given assistance for construction of 101549 houses. Under Million Wells Scheme 19029 wells for marginal farmers have been constructed. Under DPAP 738 milli water sheds are being developed.
3. Annual Plan 1998-99 -
3.1 For Annual Plan 1998-99 folloing privisions were approved against which expenditure incurred is as under
(Rs. in lakh)
------------------------------------------------ Annual Plan 1998-99 ------------------------ Name of the Scheme Approved Actual Expn. outlay ------------------------------------------------ IRDP 8470.00 8163.64 DPAP 1396.75 882.51 J.R.Y. 15344.50 14137.80 Rural Housing 2900.00 3520.64 Community Dev. 500.00 410.21
3.2 Some important targets proposed and achievements are as under :-
(i) Under IRDP, a financial target of Rs. 325.00 crores (credit & subsidy) was proposed, against which Rs. 284.65 crores (Loan & subsidy) were disbursed to 126617 beneficiaries. Average per-capita investment was Rs. 22481.00. Under Trysem, 13770 trainees was proposed to be benefitted (of which 5508 Women) against which 12094 trainees were trained, of which 3077 were women and 2974 SC & 4226 ST trainees. 15028 trainees were provided employment.
(ii)33 Mini ITIs have been sanctioned by GOI. for strengthening training infrastructure. 33 more Mini ITI's are being established.
(iv)325.80 lakh mandays employment under JRY was proposed (97.94 lakh mandays for Women), against which 319.34 lakh manday employment was generated of which 109 lakh mandays were for women.
(v) 103652 houses are proposed to be constructed. Against which 102901 houses were constructed of these 27493 houses are for SC's and 42173 for ST's.
(vi)Under Million well scheme 18782 wells were proposed to be constructed, against which 17584 wells were constructed.4958 wells were for SC beneficiaries and 6496 wells for ST persons.
4. Annual Plan 1999-2000
During 1999-2000, Govt. of India, Ministry of Rural Development have restructrured programmes of Rural Development as under :-
i) Swarn Jayanti Gram Swaraj Yojna ( SJGSY)
This scheme has been evlved by combining earlie, IRDP, TRYSEM, Improved Took Kit Supply scheme, Ganga Kalyan Yojan, Jeevan Dhara and DWCRA. The new beneficiaries oriented scheme is Centrally Sponsored scheme with 75:25 sharing by Central/State Govt. respectively. It envisaged loan cum subsidy assistance to bring the poor beneficiary households, above the poverty line with in 3 years. Nearly 30% rural house holds are proposed to be covered in 5 years. Beneficiary House holds living below the poverty line will be organised into Co-operative ( Group) activities of 4 to 5 types. 50 % of the adentified house holds should be from SC/ST categories. 50 % of the total beneficiaries should comprise women and 30 % must be handicapped.
ii) Individual beneficiary will be entitled to a susidy of Rs. 7500 where as SC/ST beneficiary will get Rs. 10000.00. In case of groups, 50 % of total cost of project, not exceeding Rs. 1.25 lakh, will be given as subsidy.
iii) 10 % of total funds under the programme will be earmarked for training and infrastructure development.
II-Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojna (JGSY)
The JRY scheme which was being implemented since 1998-99 has been restructured as JGSY salient features of the scheme are :-
ii) It is & CSS - with 75:25 % sharing between Central/State govt. It is mainly meant to develop rural infrasture. The scheme will be inplemented by Gram Panchayat.
ii) Labour employment works would be given priority works upto Rs. 50000.00 will be approved (sanctioned) by Gram Panchayats/through Gram Sabha.
iii) 20.5% of total outlay of the scheme, is earmarked for schemes/projects for welfare SC/ST.
iv) Panchayts can spent Rs. 7500.00 or 7.5% on administrative/contingent/technical assistance.
III-Indira Awas Yojna :
The scopoe of the scheme has been extended to, covversion of mud (Kachha) houses to Pakka houses. The scheme envisages 75:25 % sharing between Central/State Govt.
IV- Rural Housing
A new scheme of "Loan cum Subsidy scheme" has been initiated. House holds having annual income of Rs. 32000.00 cant be covered under the scheme. Byt priority will be given persons below poverty line. PSU like M.P. Housing Board, Devleopment Authorities and Housing Finance Corporation can also take this activity.
ii) The extent of subsidy has been raised from Rs. 10000.00 to Rs. 40000 per house holds.
4.2 For the Annual Plan 1999-2000 following provisions have been proposed :-
(Rs. in lakh)
Name of the scheme proposed provision ----------------- ------------------ i) SJGSY/IRDP 5250.00 ii) DPAP 1608.31 iii) JRY/EAS/JGSY 14589.30 iv) Rural Housing 3067.29
It is proposed to raise th level of credit/loan assistance to Rs. 31500.00 lakh during 1999-2000. 48976 new houses will be constructed under IAY besides conversion of 24488 Kachha houses to Pakka houses.
Consequent to the 73rd amendment of the Constitution, the Panchayati Raj Act has been amended providing for the formation of the three - tier system of Panchayati Raj institutions (PRIs), to deal with socio-economic problems at grass-root level effectively.
2. Ninth Five Year Plan & Annual Plan 1997-98 :
2.1 In M.P. Panchayat Raj System is now gaining roots. The representatives have now started realising their powers/duties and responsibilities. During Ninth Plan. Programmes like, Prizes to Panchayats for better collection of taxes, creating basic facilities in Panchayats, Rural Life Insurance & grant-in-aid to Distt. Panchayats , Janpad Panchayats, Gram Panchayats for staff etc. are proposed.
2.2 An outlay of Rs. 62425.00 lakh was approved for the Ninth Plan and Rs. 8802 lakh for Annual Plan 1997-98.
2.3 Some important Physical targets proposed are :-
- During the 9th Plan grant-in-aid is proposed to 21630 Panchyat for basic infrastructure incentive programme for collection of taxes to 1500 gram panchyat. Training of some 960 representatives, and 2000 panchayat secretaries and 22000 panchayat karmis is also proposed.
- During 1997-98 an expenditure of Rs. 8717.00 lakh has been incurred on grant-in-aid to 31126 panchayats for basic infrastructure facilities and Rs. 74.05 lakh for strengthening of secretarial assistance in Gram Panchayats.
3. Annual Plan 1998-99
- An outlay of Rs. 8801.54 lakh was proposed major amount of Rs. 8717.00 lakh was for third instalment of grant-in-aid to Panchayats for strengthening Panchayat Raj System and for development of Panchayat Raj Institution priority being given for construction of Panchayat Bhavan, maintenance of Panchayat building, construction of school buildings, drainage, street repairing drinking water facility.
- Against the approved outlay only Rs. 5766.00 lakh were released to Panchayats as GIA for strengthening of Panchayat Raj System and Development of Institutions. The small provision kept for two schemes - Audit cell & GIA Ambedkar Institute Mhow could not be spent as scheme were not cleared.
Continuous and periodic up-dating of Records of Rights and other Land Reforms measures are aimed at safeguarding the interests of tillers of soil, as also to keep the holding viable and economic through consolidation of small and fragmented land-holdings. Activities relating to land reforms measures viz, up-dating of Records of Rights, distribution of surplus land acquired under land ceiling act, consolidation of uneconomic and fragmented holdings etc, are essential to establish a just and orderly society. The GOI in Ministry of Rural Development have also placed special emphasis on implementation of various land reform programmes by introducing a Centrally Sponsored Scheme viz. Strengthening of Revenue Administration and updating of Land Records (SRA & ULR) (sharing pattern of 50:50).
2. Ninth Five Year Plan & Annual Plan 1997-98
2.1 The Ninth Five Year Plan programmes pursue the following strategy :-
1) Regulation of land holdings and tenancy.
2) Consolidation of land holdings.
3) Survey and settlement works through aerial survey and traditional methods.
4) Computerisation of land records, development & improvement of training institutes.
5) Assistance to allotees of surplus land and distribution of Bhu-adhikar & Rin-Pustika.
6) Training to the staff for switching over to new Technology, construction of record rooms.
7) Continuous and periodic updating of Agriculture Statistics, Conducting Agricultural Census and Holding of Live-stock Census.
8) Survey of Urban areas, preparation of land records and administration arrangement for urban management.
2.2 An outlay of Rs. 2041.00 lakh and Rs. 400.00 lakh was approved for the Ninth Plan & Annual Plan 1997-98 respectively.
2.3 Against the approved outlay Rs. 543.32 lakh have been spent during 1997-98 of which Rs. 295.01 lakh have been spent on updating revenue administration . An amount of Rs. 194.04 lakh were utilised for construction of 33 record rooms out of 10th Finance Commission Grant.
2.4 Physical targets and achievements are as follows :-
9th Plan Annual Ach. Plan 97-98 1997-98
(i) Aerial Survey (Districts) 11(Dist.) 5 - (ii) Financial Assistance to 1600 120 240 allottees of surplus land (Persons) (iii) Construction of records 33(rooms) 1 33 rooms rooms (iv) Construction of training 3(Build.) 1 1 Inst. (v) Bhooadikar rin Pustika Nil 14285 _ persons to be benifitted
3. Annual Plan 1998-99 -
3.1 An outlay of Rs. 543.44 lakh was approved for the Annual Plan 1998-99 which includes an outlay of Rs. 100 lakh as State's share in the CSS of "upgradation of revenue administration and updation of revenue records". Against which an expenditure of Rs. 396.06 lakh was incurred. Rs. 122.25 lakh were spent on udating of Revenue Administration and Rs. 217.56 laskh on construction of record rooms under Xth Finance Commission.
3.2 Physical targets proposed and achieved are as under :-
Proposed Achieved - (i) Aerial survey (District) 4 4 (ii) Land Dev. Scheme (persons) 120 120 (iii) Construction of Record Room 37 work is in progress
4. Annual Plan 1999-2000
An outlay of Rs. 344.64 lakh has been proposed for continueing schemes.