Annual Plan 1999-2000
1.1.1 Historical Background : On re-organisation of States, the new State of Madhya Pradesh was formed on November 1, 1956 comprising the seventeen districts of Mahakoshal, two districts of Bhopal, the eight districts of Vindhya Pradesh, sixteen districts of Madhya Bharat, except the Sunel* enclave of Mandsaur district, which was included in Rajasthan, and the Sironj sub-division of the Kotah district of Rajasthan. At the time of its formation, the State had 43 districts. Subsequently, two large districts were bifurcated. 16 more districts were formed in the year 1998 and the State presently has 61 districts. The districts are, however, not uniform in either area or population.
1.1.2 Lying between Latitudes 17o 48' N to 26o 52' N and between the Longitudes 74o 2' E to 84o 24' E, Madhya Pradesh is situated in the very heart of India and is surrounded by seven States, viz., Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat. It has an area of 443 thousand sq. kms. Its population according to 1991 Census is 661.8 lakhs. The State is largest in the country in terms of area and the sixth most populous. The density of population at 149 per sq. km. is, however, low and dispersed in small pockets. Besides, more than 37.8 per cent of the population comprises of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
1.1.3 Madhya Pradesh has extensive mineral and forest resources, rich and fertile soil and reasonably abundant water resources and a promising future. Unfortunately, in spite of the State Government's efforts to make rapid strides in the direction of economic and social advancement, the pace of development has been slow partly for historical and partly for economic reasons.
1.1.4 Administrative Set-up : The State has at present 12 Commissioner's Divisions, 61 districts, 347 tahsils and 459 community development blocks, including 174 tribal development blocks.
1.1.5 Three-Tier Panchayati Raj: In consequence of the 73rd. Constitution amendment, Madhya Pradesh was the first State to enact a new Panchayati Raj Act in 1993. In June, 1994, extensive Panchayat elections were completed and 31135 Gram Panchayats, 459 Janpad Panchayats and 45 Zilla Panchayats were established. Powers and duties at the three levels of Panchayats have also been defined, so that decentralisation of power is achieved in the true sense. A State-level Finance Commission was also constituted to recommend transfer of resources from the State Government to the Panchayats and Urban Local Bodies for carrying out the functions entrusted to them and their recommendations have been implemented by the State Government.
1.1.6 Urban Local Bodies : Elections to Urban Local Bodies, as envisaged in the 74th. Constitution amendment have also been held in November, 1994, which completed the full process of decentralisation of power in the State.
|1.2 POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS|
1.2.1 About 7.8 per cent of the country's total population resides in Madhya Pradesh. According to the 1991 Census, the State has a population of 661.81 lakhs, spread over 71.5 thousand inhabited villages and 465 towns. Of the total population, 51.8 per cent were males and the balance 48.2 per cent females. Thus, the sex-ratio (females per thousand males) comes to 931, which is not very far of the all-India average of 927. The density of population in Madhya Pradesh is only 149 persons per sq. km., which is only about half of the all-India average of 274.
1.2.2 Another significant aspect is the high concentration of tribal population in the State. The percentage of Scheduled Tribes population to total population of the State is as high as 23.27, as against the All-India average of 8.08 per cent. The percentage of Scheduled Castes population to the total population of the State is 14.55, which is slightly lower than the all-India average of 16.48. The combined Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes population of the State comes to 37.82 per cent of its total population, as against 24.56 per cent for the country as a whole. The combined population of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes is thus more than one-third of the total population of Madhya Pradesh, whereas it is only one-fourth at the all-India level.
1.2.3 The work participation rate in the State at 42.82 is, however, significantly higher than the all-India average of 37.46. This is mainly due to higher female participation rate of 32.68 per cent in Madhya Pradesh, as against the all-India average of 22.25 per cent. Most of the tribal districts have a very high female participation rate, ranging from 30 to more than 51 per cent.
1.2.4 According to the 1991 Census, the literacy rate in the State (population 7 years and above) is 44.20, as against the national average of 52.21. It is significant to note that male literacy has reached 91 per cent of the all-India level, while the female literacy rate is hardly three-fourths of the all-India level.
1.2.5 The decadal growth rate of population in Madhya Pradesh at 26.84 during the period 1981-91 is still higher than the all-India average of 23.85. During the decade 1961-71 the population of the State increased by 28.67 per cent. Thereafter, in the next decade, 1971-81 it declined to 25.27 per cent, but increased again to 26.84 per cent in 1981-91. Though the increase in 1981-91 is not as steep as in 1961-71, it is a cause of concern, as it has recurred after a decline.
1.2.6 The life expectancy (1991-95) in the State is 54.7 years for males and 54.6 years for females, as against 59.7 years and 60.9 years respectively for India as a whole.
1.2.7 The demographic scenario of the State is still characterised by a very high birth rate, a significantly high death rate, as well as infant mortality rate. Data for 1997 shows that the crude birth rate in the State is 31.9, as against the all-India average of 27.2;
whereas the crude death rate in the State is 11.0, as against the all-India average of 8.9. Similarly, the infant mortality rate at 94 in the State is higher than the all-India average of 71.
|1.3 NATURAL RESOURCES|
1.3.1 Land and its Use : The State has a geographical area of 443.46 lakh hectares, out of which the net area sown in 1997-98 199.40 lakh hectares and 26.41 lakh hectares are under permanent pastures, grazing lands and under miscellaneous tree crops. Another 14.83 lakh hectares are current and old fallow lands and 14.56 lakh hectares constitute cultivable waste land. According to village papers, area under forests is 145.97 lakh hectares, which is slightly different from that reported by the Forest Department. That leaves 42.29 lakh hectares, which are not available for cultivation, either being barren or uncultivable land or land put to non-agricultural uses.
1.3.2 Forests : Madhya Pradesh is a land of sylvan charm. The total extent of forests in the State according to Forest Department records is 1.54 lakh sq. kms., which is approximately 35 per cent of the total area of the State, as against 23 per cent for the country as a whole. In fact, one-fourth of the country's forests are situated in the State.
1.3.3 The forests are the main source of supply of fodder and fuel and subsistence for the poorest sections of the people and tribal population in the interior, under-developed areas of the State. The forests contain a host of economically important species, amongst which Teak and Sal occupy prized positions. These forests catered to the needs of the people and cattle for generations, largely because they contained good coppicing species. However, population explosion and developmental needs have exerted a steadily increasing demand on the ever-diminishing extent of forests. Over-exploitation resulted in reduction of area under forests. According to the State of Forest Report, 1997 although 1.54 lakh sq. kms. is recorded as forests, the actual forest cover has declined to 1.31 lakh sq. kms. There has, thus been a loss of 14.9 per cent in forest cover as per the 1997 assessment.
1.3.4 The State Government have banned felling of trees in selected areas to facilitate natural re-generation and curb exploitation. Efforts have also been made to increase the forest cover. This has had a tapering effect on the revenue receipts from forests. Although in absolute terms the receipts from forests increased from Rs. 9.94 crores in 1960-61 to Rs. 373.11 crores in 1990-91 and further to Rs. 588.00 crores in 1997-98 (Revised Estimates); yet the share of revenue from forests to total non-tax revenue of the State declined perceptibly from 54.9 per cent in 1960-61 to 44.3 per cent in 1990-91, and thereafter to a mere 28.8 per cent in 1997-98 (Revised Estimates). Similarly, the share of forest revenue to the State's total own revenue receipts also declined from 20 per cent to a meagre 9 percent.
1.3.5 As of now, while the total receipts from forests in 1997-98 were Rs. 625.85 crores, the expenditure on revenue account under this head was Rs. 493.03 crores. Forests as a source of revenue for the State Government has thus almost dried up.
1.3.6 Water Resources : The 12 major rivers of the State, namely, Mahanadi, Mahi, Narmada, Tapti, Chambal, Betwa, Sone, Wainganga, Indrawati, Sabri, Ken and Pench originate in Madhya Pradesh and flow to the seven neighbouring States. The estimated annual run-off of water which could be harnessed from them for irrigation purposes is 88 MAF. Besides, the annual ground water recoverable from recharge has been assessed at 39 MAF, out of which about 53 per cent could be harnessed for irrigation. It is estimated that the State has an irrigation potential of about 102 lakh hectares, which when fully utilised can irrigate 51.2 per cent of the net area sown in the State. As against this, irrigation potential of about 33.43 lakh hectares have been created by Government sources upto the end of 1997-98. The net area irrigated as percentage of net area sown is 31.6 per cent in 1997-98.
1.3.7 Minerals : The State is richly endowed with vast reserves of various minerals. Excluding natural gas and petroleum, the State contributes about 24 per cent of the total value of mineral produced in the country. Thus, Madhya Pradesh now ranks first in the mineral producing States of the country.
1.3.8 Presently, 25 major minerals are mined in the State. Important amongst them being coal, bauxite, copper ore, iron ore, manganese ore, rock phosphate, limestone and dolomite. Diamond is presently available only in Panna district of the State in the whole of India.
1.3.9 The contribution of the mining and quarrying sector to the Net State Domestic Product at current prices rose from Rs.246.06 crores in 1980-81 to Rs. 2309.83 crores in 1997-98 - nearly eight fold increase in seventeen years. But, the share of this sector in the Net State Domestic Product has increased slightly from 3.51 per cent in 1980-81 to 3.79 per cent in 1997-98.
1.3.10 In spite of the significance of the mining sector in the State economy the State exchequer could not derive commensurate advantage. The royalty rates of most of the major minerals are fixed by the Government of India and due to various reasons there have not been timely or adequate rate revisions.
|1.4 GROWTH IN STATE ECONOMY AND STATE INCOME|
1.4.1 Economic Growth Rate : The State economy has grown at a compound (exponential) rate of 4.68 per cent per annum during the seventeen years period 1980-81 to 1997-98. The growth rate during the Seventh Plan period (1985-90) being 5.51 per cent per annum and 6.68 per cent during the five years of the Eighth Plan period, 1992-93 to 1996-97.
1.4.2 State Income : The net State domestic product of Madhya Pradesh at current prices increased from Rs. 55872.34 crores in 1996-97 to Rs. 61018.78 crores in 1997-98 -- registering an increase of 9.2 per cent during this period. Similarly, the net State domestic product at constant (1980-81) prices increased by 3.1 per cent, from Rs. 14302.00 crores in 1996-97 to Rs.14747.63 crores in 1997-98.
1.4.3 Sectoral Composition : The following table shows the sectoral composition of net State domestic product of Madhya Pradesh at current prices :
------------------------------------------------------------------- Sectors Percentage distribution of Net State Domestic Product at Current Prices ------------------------------------------- 1996-97 1997-98 ( P) (Q) -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1. Primary Sector 42.07 41.44 (Of which- Agriculture (36.57) (35.08) including Animal Husbandry)
2. Secondary Sector 26.15 26.26 (Of which- Manufactu- (15.99) (16.13) ring- Registered and Unregistered) 3. Tertiary Sector 31.78 32.30 -------------------------------------------------------------------- Total 100.00 100.00 -------------------------------------------------------------------- (P) = Provisional (Q) = Quick
1.4.4 Per Capita Income : The Per Capita Income in the State at current prices increased from Rs. 7571 in 1996-97 to Rs. 8114 in 1997-98 and at constant (1980-81) prices from Rs. 1938 to Rs. 1961 during the same period.
1.5.1 Introduction : Though the contribution of the primary sector, which includes agriculture, to the total net State domestic product is coming down, agriculture is still the mainstay of the State's economy, as about 77 per cent of the population is still dependent upon agriculture. Agriculture in the State is still traditional. It is mostly rainfed, alongwith the impeding factors of soil erosion due to rolling topography, practice of keeping land fallow during kharif and taking only one crop in rabi, existence of large area of cultivable waste and fallow land, high proportion of low value crops, with low productivity, etc. Another factor is the fragmentation of agricultural holdings. According to the 1995-96 Agriculture Census, out of 96.03 lakh operational holdings in the State, more than 64 per cent come under the category of small and marginal holdings.
1.5.2 Area under Crops : Net area sown in the State increased marginally by 0.2 per cent, from 199.09 lakh hectares in 1996-97 to 199.40 lakh hectares in 1997-98. During the same period, area sown more than once increased by 7.9 per cent, from 56.78 lakh hectares to 61.30 lakh hectares. Thus, from 22.2 per cent in 1996-97 the percentage of area sown more than once to total cropped area increased to 23.5 per cent in 1997-98. Presently, about three-fourths of the gross-cropped area is under food crops and the balance one-fourth under non-food crops. Among foodgrains, paddy is sown in about 20.8 per cent of the grossed cropped area, followed by wheat in about 17.6 per cent area. Jowar follows next with about 3.2 per cent of the gross cropped area. About 19.3 per cent of the gross cropped area is under pulses, followed by all oilseeds (23.9 per cent), out of which the share of soyabean is 17.1 per cent.
1.5.3 Production of Crops : Due to excessive rains and inclement weather conditions, production of foodgrains in the State declined from 195.39 lakh metric tons in 1996-97 to 173.10 lakh metric tons in 1997-98-- thus decreasing by 11.4 per cent during the year. The two important foodgrain crops of the State are rice and wheat, which among themselves contribute about 67.8 per cent of the total foodgrains production in the State. In 1997-98 the production of rice and wheat was recorded as 43.88 and 73.46 lakh metric tons respectively; against 59.79 and 77.95 lakh metric tons respectively, in 1996-97.
1.5.4 Pulses collectively contribute about 18.8 per cent of the total foodgrains production in the State and their output in 1997-98 was recorded as 32.54 lakh metric tons. Madhya Pradesh is reckoned as an important pulse-producing State, with its share in all-India production being between 19 and 23 per cent.
1.5.5 Among major non-foodgrain crops oilseeds, particularly soyabean has also played a leading role in the agricultural sector. Presently, about 98 per cent of the all-India soyabean production is recorded in this State. Besides, the State is now contributing between 16 and 23 per cent of the national production of oilseeds.
1.5.6 Productivity : Among major crops, the first important break-through in the productivity of rice and wheat came in the early eighties, when the yield rate of these two crops crossed the one tonne per hectare barrier. Thereafter, although the yield of wheat went on increasing (except in bad monsoon years), that of rice remained almost static. The highest average yield rate of these two crops, i.e., rice and wheat during the current decade in the State at 1273 and 1879 kgs. per hectare respectively is still below the national average.
1.5.7 In the case of oilseeds and pulses the per hectare yield of all pulses is 648 kgs. Similarly, the yield of all oilseeds is 926 kgs. per hectare in 1997-98.
1.5.8 Inputs : Agriculture would have made greater strides but for several constraints, the main being paucity of resources. One of the major causes of the low productivity in the agricultural sector is the low irrigation facilities available in the State, which makes agriculture dependent on good monsoons. As against an irrigation potential of about 51.2 per cent of the net area sown, presently the percentage of net area irrigated to net area sown is only 31.6 per cent. Another constraint is the low consumption of fertilisers. Presently, the consumption of fertilisers per hectare of cropped area is about 47 kgs.
1.6.1 Registered Factories : By the end of December, 1997 the State had 11578 registered working factories, employing about 5.77 lakh workers.
1.6.2 Agricultural and Non-Agricultural Enterprises : According to the latest Economic Census the number of agricultural and non-agricultural enterprises in the State was more than 20.74 lakhs. Their position is summarised in the following table :
Type of Enterprise No. (In lakhs) Percentage
-------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 -------------------------------------------------- Agricultural 1.72 8.3 Non-Agricultural 19.02 91.7 -------------------------------------------------- Total 20.74 100.0 --------------------------------------------------
1.6.3 Central Government Undertakings : Four major Central Government Undertakings, viz., the Bhilai Steel Plant, the Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, the Bharat Aluminium Company Limited and the Nepa Mills are located in the State, besides, there is a Central Bank Note Press at Dewas.
1.6.4 Production of Selected Industries : Among selected major industries the production of iron and steel, aluminium and cement, as also vanaspati has shown a continuous rising trend. The sugar industry had a slightly chequered career due to non-availability of sugarcane and continuously rising prices. But the worst sufferer has been the mill sector cotton textile industry where production is registering a continuous decline during the past few years.
1.6.5 The production of hot metal and saleable steel in the Bhilai Steel Plant was 45.17 and 35.24 lakh metric tons in 1997-98. The production of aluminium was 88.2 thousand metric tons and of cement was 156.06 lakh metric tons during this period. Production of newsprint was 37.5 thousand metric tons in 1997-98.
1.6.6 Share of the Manufacturing Sector in Net State Domestic Product : Presently the contribution of manufacturing sub-sector (registered and unregistered) is 16.13 per cent of the net State domestic product, at current prices.
1.6.7 The actual domestic product generated from the manufacturing sub-sector, in real terms, i.e., at 1980-81 prices, both for the registered and unregistered sub-sectors is set out in the following table :
(Rs. crores) ------------------------------------------------------------- Year Net State Domestic Product originating from Manufacturing Sub-Sector (At 1980-81 prices) ------------------------------------------------------- Registered Unregistered Total ------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 4 ------------------------------------------------------------- 1980-81 481.37 378.30 859.67 1990-91 1067.29 702.29 1769.58 1996-97 (P) 1541.73 977.22 2518.95 1997-98 (Q) 1674.31 1067.63 2741.94 ------------------------------------------------------------- (P) = Provisional (Q) = Quick
1.6.8 It is observed that the net State domestic product originating from the manufacturing sub-sector at constant (1980-81) prices has increased from 2518.95 crores in 1996-97 to Rs. 2741.94 crores in 1997-98, which means an 8.9 per cent growth in real terms in this sector during the year. It is interesting to note, that while manufacturing registered sub-sector increased by 8.6 per cent, manufacturing unregistered sub-sector recorded a growth of 9.3 per cent during this period. The ratio of registered and unregistered manufacturing sub-sectors, however, remained 61:39 during both the years. Madhya Pradesh has abundant natural resources, locational advantage, peaceful industrial relations, better organisational delivery system, availability of agricultural inputs and raw materials and a number of State Government Undertakings for guidance and help. Under the State's industrial policy, highest priority has been accorded to maximum utilisation of present production capacities of industries, incentives for specialised production and diversified productivity, improvement in the working capacity of workers /labourers /artisans, improved scientific techniques and productivity and quality control of goods produced and setting up of new industries in the districts where there are no industries or their number is inadequate. The State has a large number of Central and State Industrial Growth Centres, well-defined thrust areas in the new industrial policy and abundant raw materials for setting up mineral, agro and gas-based industries.
1.7.1 Power : The total installed capacity of power with the Madhya Pradesh Electricity Board was 3815.7 MW in 1997-98, the ratio of thermal and hydel capacity being 78:22. During 1997-98, 1944.14 crore kwh. of electricity was generated in the State, as against 1841.39 crore kwh. in 1996-97. During this period the consumption of electricity in the State increased from 2347.53 crore kwh. in 1996-97 to 2440.91 crore kwh. in 1997-98.
1.7.2 There has been a drastic change in the pattern of power consumption in the State during the past years. While the percentage share of power consumption in the industrial, commercial and public utility (light and works) sectors declined; the greatest gainer has been irrigation (agriculture). The share of consumption in the domestic sector has also increased substantially. In 1997-98 the share of consumption of electricity in the irrigation (agriculture) sector was 39.7 per cent, in the industrial sector 35.4 per cent, in domestic sector 16.6 per cent, in commercial sector 2.8 per cent, in public utilities (light and works) 2.4 per cent and in other sectors 3.1 per cent. The per capita power consumption increased from 313 kwh. in 1996-97 to 318 kwh. in 1997-98.
1.7.3 During 1997-98, 463 additional villages were electrified. The percentage of villages electrified to total inhabited villages thus went up from 94.4 in 1996-97 to 95.0 in 1997-98. Similarly, the number of pump-sets and tube-wells energised increased by 4.5 per cent, from 11.76 lakhs in 1996-97 to 12.29 lakhs in 1997-98.
1.7.4 With consumption out-stripping the generation of electricity, shortages are felt during the peak demand periods, particularly during the agricultural season. In consonance with the liberalisation policy, it has been decided to open the power sector also for private investment.
1.7.5 Roads : The large area of the State combined with paucity of resources has resulted in a painfully slow growth of road length in the State. The total road length maintained by PWD in the State is 100.2 thousand kms. in 1997-98, about seven-eight of which is surfaced.
1.7.6 The total road length per 100 sq. kms. of area in the State increased from 22.4 kms. in 1996-97 to 22.6 kms. in 1997-98, and that of surfaced roads from 17.5 kms. to 17.8 kms. during the same period.
1.7.7 Postal and Telephone Services : There were 11.3 thousand post offices in the State in 1997-98. The population served per post office being 5857 in that year.
1.7.8 The number of telephone connections in the State was 801 thousand in 1997-98. Thus, telephone connections per thousand population came to 12.1 in that year.
1.7.9 Registered Vehicles : The number of registered vehicles rose from 25.45 lakhs in 1996-97 to 28.33 lakhs in 1997-98. The highest increase has been in the number of motor cycles, scooters and mopeds. Their number rose from 19.17 lakhs in 1996-97 to 21.26 lakhs in 1997-98. Presently, more than three-fourths of the total vehicles registered in the State, comes under this category. On the other hand, the number of commercial vehicles like taxi cabs and three wheelers, buses and trucks was only 2.22 lakhs in 1997-98, constituting about 7.8 per cent of the total registered vehicles.
|1.8 SOCIAL SERVICES|
1.8.1 Education : According to the 1991 Census, the literacy percentage in the State for population aged 7 and above years is 44.20, as against 52.21 at the national level. The female literacy rate is even lower at 28.85, as against 39.29 for the country as a whole. The female literacy rate in several districts of the State, particularly the tribal districts, is still lower.
1.8.2 The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) in its 52nd round (July, 1995 to June, 1996) carried out a nation wide survey, in which on of the topics covered was level of education. It gives distribution of persons, aged 15 years and above by level of education attained. According of this survey the literacy rate (for persons aged 15 years and above) in the state during 1995-96 comes to 46.9, as against 54.3 for the country as a whole.
The State has made tremendous progress in providing educational facilities to the children in the State. The State has at present 81.6 thousand Primary, 20.1 thousand Middle,7.4 thousand High and Higher Secondary Schools being run by different agencies. In addition, 34.1 thousand Non-formal Education Centres are also functioning in the State for those who cannot afford formal education. In 1997-98 the enrollment at the pre-primary/primary level is 103.38 lakhs, which is 108.85 per cent of the total number of children in the age-group 6-11 years. At the middle stage, 34.69 lakh students are enrolled. At high and higher secondary stage the enrollment is 20.39 lakhs. Thus, concerted effort is still required in this sector.
1.8.3 Madhya Pradesh declared universal access to primary education by reaching a primary school facility within one kilometre of every habitation. This was made possible by the Education Guarantee Scheme (EGS) implemented by the Primary Education Mission, which guarantees a functioning school within 90 days by the date of demand by any community deprived of schooling facility. Started on 1st January, 1997, the EGS created over 19 thousand primary schools through community participation in 18 months.
1.8.4 Health : The health needs of the State has to be assessed in the context of its very large area and sparse population, coupled with the high percentage of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes population, spread over the length and breadth of the State. The cost of delivery of health services, in these circumstances is very high.
1.8.5 The principal health indicators show that the State has a very high birth rate - 31.9, a significantly high death rate - 11.0 and a high infant mortality rate - 94 in 1997.
1.8.6 In 1996-97 there is one doctor for 10.7 thousand population and one nurse for 2.2 thousand population in the State. Besides, the number of hospital beds per lakh of population is 47.
1.8.7 Presently,the State has the following health infrastructure :
A. Allopathic System :
1. Medical Colleges 6
2. Medical College Associated Hospitals 7
3. Dental College 1
4. Nursing College 1
5. District Hospitals 42
6. Community Health Centres 343
7. Primary Health Centres 1705
8. Mini Primary Health Centres 239
9. Rural Civil Dispensaries 130
10. Subsidiary Health Centres 41
11. Rural Civil Hospitals 55
12. Poly Clinics 9
13. Rural Family Welfare Centres 460
14. Urban Family Welfare Centres 214
15. Post Martum Centres 121
16. Civil Hospitals-Urban 74
17. Sub-Health Centres 12568
18. Mental Hospitals 2
19. Cancer Hospitals 4
20. T.B. Hospitals 8
21. T.B. Sanitorium 2
22. District T.B. Centres 47
23. Additional T.B. Centres 2
24. Leprosy Homes and Hospitals 8
25. Civil Dispensaries-Urban 115
26. Health and Family Welfare Centres 4
27. General Nursing Schools 14
28. P.H.O.T.C., Jabalpur and Gwalior 2
29. Female Health Worker Schools 32
30. Regional Nursing Training Centre 1
31. T.B.Training-cum-Demonstration Centre 1
32. State Health Management and Communication Institute 1
B. Indigenous System of Medicine and Ayurved :
1. Ayurvedic College 1
2. Ayurvedic Hospitals 34
3. Ayurvedic Dispensaries 2074
4. Homoeopathic Hospital 4
5. Homoeopathic Dispensaries 201
6. Unani Dispensaries 55
|1.9 EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT|
1.9.1 Total Workers : According to the 1991 Census, out of the State's total population of 661.81 lakhs, the number of total workers was 283.40 lakhs, constituting 179.09 lakh males and 104.31 lakh females. Of the total workers, 238.07 lakhs were in rural areas and 45.33 lakhs in urban areas. The work participation rate for all persons in the State is 42.82 as against 52.26 for males and 32.68 for females.
1.9.2 Main Workers : Of the total 283.40 lakh workers in the State as per 1991 Census, 249.34 lakhs were classified as main workers and 34.06 lakhs as marginal workers. A person who worked for a major part of the year, i.e., 6 months (183 days) or more was classified as main worker by the 1991 Census, whereas persons working for less than this period were classified as marginal workers. Thus, of the total population of the State, 37.67 per cent were classified as main workers, while the percentage of marginal workers according to 1991 Census was 5.15.
1.9.3 Industrial Category of Main Workers : The 1991 Census has distributed the main workers into nine industrial categories. Of the total main workers in the State, 51.75 per cent were cultivators, 23.51 per cent agricultural labourers, 1.39 per cent were engaged in livestock, forestry, fishing, hunting, plantations, orchards and allied activities, 0.89 per cent in mining and quarrying, 6.81 per cent in manufacturing, processing, servicing and repairs (2.41 per cent in household industry and 4.40 per cent in other than household industry), 1.56 per cent in construction, 4.77 per cent in trade and commerce, 1.70 per cent in transport, storage and communication and 7.62 per cent in other services.
1.9.4 Employment in Public Sector : Employment in public sector, which includes number of persons employed in Central Government departments and undertakings in the State, as well as State Government departments and undertakings, etc., in 1997-98 was 14.05 lakhs.
1.9.5 Employment under the State Government : Employment in the State Government departments (regular) declined from 7.05 lakhs as on 31st March, 1997 to 7.03 lakhs as on 31st March, 1998. Employment thus declined by 2.2 per cent in 1996-97 and by 0.3 per cent in 1997-98 as compared to previous years.
1.9.6 Employment in Urban Local Bodies : Employment in the urban local bodies of the State increased from 0.67 lakh in 1996-97 to 0.71 lakh in 1997-98.
1.9.7 Employment in Semi-Government Organisations : Employment in the semi-Government organisations and State public sector undertakings declined from 1.45 lakhs in 1996-97 to 1.44 lakhs in 1997-98.
1.9.8 Average Daily Employment in Registered Factories and Shops and Commercial Establishments : The average daily employment in the Registered factories of the State increased from 5.58 lakhs in 1996 to 5.77 lakhs in 1997. Average daily employment in shops and commercial establishments increased from 1.90 lakh in 1996 to 2.07 lakhs in 1997, i.e., by 8.9 per cent during the year.
1.9.9 Persons Usually Working in Enterprises : The latest Economic Census gives data about persons usually working in Enterprises in Madhya Pradesh. According to this Census the number of persons usually working in Enterprises in the State was 48.97 lakhs.
1.9.10 Status of Unemployment-No. of Persons on Live Registers of Employment Exchanges : The number of persons on the live registers of Employment Exchanges in the State increased from 22.94 lakhs in 1996 to 23.77 lakhs in 1997. Out of these, the number of educated job-seekers were 17.48 lakhs in 1996 and 18.56 lakhs in 1997.
|1.10 BACKWARDNESS AND POVERTY|
1.10.1 Area and Population : With 13.5 per cent of the total geographical area, Madhya Pradesh is the largest State of the country. Its density of population at 149 is, however, only 54 per cent of the all-India density of 274. In fact, after Rajasthan (129 persons per sq. km. area), Madhya Pradesh has the lowest density of population among the 14 non-Special Category States. As compared with West Bengal (767 persons per sq. km.) and Kerala (749 persons per sq. km.), Madhya Pradesh has five times less density per sq. km.
1.10.2 The population of Madhya Pradesh is growing at a faster pace. The decadal growth of population during the period 1981-91 at 26.8 per cent is significantly higher than the all-India rate of 23.9 per cent during the same period. As compared with Kerala (14.3 per cent) and Tamil Nadu (15.4 per cent), the population growth rate in Madhya Pradesh is too high, though as compared to Haryana (27.4 per cent) and Rajasthan (28.4 per cent) it is lower.
1.10.3 Madhya Pradesh has a combined scheduled castes and scheduled tribes population percentage of 37.8, which is far greater than the all-India percentage of 24.6. Among 14 non-Special Category States only Orissa has a slightly higher percentage of 38.4 of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes population.
1.10.4 Per Capita Income : Per capita income is the single most comprehensive indicator of the level of the State's economy. The per capita income of Madhya Pradesh in 1996-97, at current prices, increased to Rs. 7571, which is only 70 per cent of all-India per capita income of Rs. 10771 for that year. Madhya Pradesh is thus still classified as a low income State in company with Uttar Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan and Bihar. In fact, the per capita income of some of the high income States like Punjab, Haryana and Maharashtra is more than twice that of Madhya Pradesh. The per capita incomes of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu are also much higher than that of Madhya Pradesh.
1.10.5 Poverty : The Planning Commission had worked out estimates of persons living below poverty line for 1993-94. It was estimated that 42.5 per cent of the State's population was living below the poverty line in 1993-94, as against 36.0 per cent for the country as a whole. The State was the third poorest among 14 non-Special Category States in that year, the worst being Bihar with 55.0 per cent, followed by Orissa with 48.6 per cent and then Madhya Pradesh with 42.5 per cent of the population living below poverty line in 1993-94.
1.10.6 Human Development Index : An important indicator of the State's backwardness, which has also been adopted by the UNDP, is the Human Development Index (HDI) and Gender Development Index (GDI). These index are arrived at by using three important indicators, i.e., (i) Per Capita Net State Domestic Product (as current prices 1990-93) (ii) Literacy Percentage (7 and above age group of 1991, Census) and, (iii) Life Expectancy 1989-93 average age. This Index, for the sixteen States, is given in the following table :
-------------------------------------------------------------------- States Year 1991-92 ----------------------------------------------------------- Human Development Gender Development Index (HDI) Index (GDI) -------------------------------------------------------------------- 1 2 3 ------------------------------------------------------- 1. Kerala 0.603 0.565 2. Punjab 0.529 0.424 3. Maharashtra 0.523 0.492 4. Haryana 0.489 0.370 5. Gujarat 0.467 0.437 6. West Bengal 0.459 0.399 7. Himanchal Pradesh 0.454 0.432 8. Karnataka 0.448 0.417 9. Tamil Nadu 0.438 0.402 10 Andhra Pradesh 0.400 0.371 11. Assam 0.379 0.347 12. Orissa 0.373 0.329 13. Rajasthan 0.356 0.309 14. Bihar 0.354 0.306 15. Madhya Pradesh 0.349 0.312 16. Uttar Pradesh 0.348 0.293 -------------------------------------------------------
1.10.7 It would be observed that on the basis of Human Development Index, Madhya Pradesh ranks 15th, out of 16 States. Only Uttar Pradesh ranks below Madhya Pradesh. On the basis of Gender Development Index, Madhya Pradesh rankes 13th, out of 16 States. Only Rajasthan, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh ranks below M.P.
1.10.8 Agriculture : In spite of making some strides in the agricultural sector, the yield rates of major crops in the State are low. The average yield rate of rice (average for triennium 1994-95 to 1996-97) was recorded as 1158 kgs. per hectare in Madhya Pradesh as against 1862 kgs. per hectare for all-India. In fact, the yield of rice in Madhya Pradesh is only one-third that of Tamil Nadu and Punjab, about half that of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Haryana and two-thirds or even less than that of Uttar Pradesh.
1.10.9 The average yield of wheat during the same period was 1715 kgs. per hectare, which is only 67 per cent of the all-India average yield of 2571 kgs. per hectare. During this period the average yield of wheat in Punjab was 3889 kgs. per hectare and in Haryana 3932 kgs. per hectare. Leaving aside these States, the yield in the State is 67.6 per cent less than that in even Uttar Pradesh and about 20.9 per cent less than that of Bihar.
1.10.10 The result of this is that the average yield of total foodgrains is only 1075 kgs. per hectare in Madhya Pradesh (average for triennium 1994-95 to 1996-97) as against the all-India average yield of 1547 kgs. per hectare. Agriculture in the State has thus to go a long way to catch up with at least the all-India level.
1.10.11 The lower agricultural yields in the State are partly due to lower consumption of fertilisers in the State, which in turn is due to lower irrigation facilities. During 1996-97 the per hectare consumption of fertilisers in the State was 39.2 kgs., as against the all-India average of 76.8 kgs. Developed States like Punjab and Andhra Pradesh recorded 158.4 kgs. and 139.4 kgs. per hectare respectively of fertiliser consumption during this period. Even Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal have a fertiliser consumption of 131.0 kgs., 108.4 kgs., 80.6 kgs. and 103.2 kgs. per hectare respectively. Among 14 non-Special Category States only Rajasthan and Orissa have a per hectare fertiliser consumption which was below Madhya Pradesh in that year.
1.10.12 The lower yield rates of major crops is reflected in the lower per hectare average value added by agriculture in the State. The average per hectare value added by agriculture during the triennium 1986-89 in Madhya Pradesh was Rs. 2661, as against Rs. 4646 for the country as a whole. Kerala has the highest per hectare average value added by agriculture of Rs. 9417, followed by West Bengal and Punjab with Rs. 7600 and Rs. 7050 per hectare value added by agriculture respectively during the period. Barring Rajasthan, which has the lowest per hectare average value added by agriculture of Rs. 2485, Madhya Pradesh was the lowest State in this regard.
1.10.13 Industry : There is a vast scope for industrialisation in the State. Efforts made in the recent past have also started bearing fruit, though much still needs to be done. According to the Annual Survey of Industries, 1995-96, the per capita net value added in the factory sector in Madhya Pradesh was Rs. 1455 as against Rs. 1647 for all-India. During the same period Maharashtra and Gujarat have per capita net value added of Rs. 4177 and Rs. 4266 respectively. Bihar, Orissa, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh are the non-Special Category States where the per capita value added in factory sector is lower than that of Madhya Pradesh.
1.11 Infrastructure Development :
1.11.1 (a) Road Length : Due to vastness of area it has been difficult to provide adequate road length in the State. Besides, due to paucity of resources, even the present road-length could not be maintained adequately. The State had a total road length of 449 kms. per thousand sq. kms. of area in 1995-96, as against the all-India average of 730 kms. In contrast, Kerala had a road length of 3650 kms. per thousand sq. kms. of area, while Tamil Nadu and Orissa have road lengths of 1582 and 1350 kms. per thousand sq. kms. of area. Even Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have 806 and 492 kms. of road length per thousand sq. kms. of area.
1.11.2 (b) Villages connected by All-Weather Roads : About 28 per cent of the villages in the State were connected by all-weather roads in 1993-94, as against 48 per cent for the country as a whole. In Kerala cent per cent and in Punjab and Haryana 99 per cent of the villages have been connected by all-weather roads. The percentage for Uttar Pradesh and Bihar being 44 and 35 respectively.
1.11.3 (c) Railway Route Length : Although lying in the middle of India, Madhya Pradesh has a railway route length of only 13 kms. per thousand sq. kms. of area in 1990-91. The all-India average being 19 kms. Among 14 non-Special Category States, only Orissa has 13 kms. of railway route length per thousand sq. kms. of area which is equal to Madhya Pradesh. Among other States, Punjab and West Bengal have 43 kms. each, Haryana has 34 kms., Bihar and Tamil Nadu have 31 kms. each and Uttar Pradesh has 30 kms. of railway route length per thousand sq. kms. of area. As many places in Madhya Pradesh are still not connected by rail, urgent augmentation of railway route length in the State is necessary.
1.11.4 (d) Infrastructure Development Index : The Infrastructure Development Index, keeping the all-India average at 100, is 72 for Madhya Pradesh, as against 85 for Rajasthan, 86 for Orissa, 97 for Bihar and 111 for Uttar Pradesh. For proper development of backward States like Madhya Pradesh, infrastructure facilities have to be upgraded in order that it may not prove an impediment to its economic growth.
1.11.5 Literacy Rates : Literacy rate in Madhya Pradesh (population 7 years and above) according to 1991 Census is 44 per cent, as against the all-India average of 52. The low-income States invariably have a low literacy rate. Thus, the literacy rate in Bihar is 38 per cent, in Rajasthan 39 per cent, in Uttar Pradesh 42 per cent, in Madhya Pradesh 44 per cent and in Orissa 49 per cent. Among developed States, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab and Haryana have literacy rates of 65, 61, 59 and 56 per cent respectively. Besides, Kerala had attained 90 per cent literacy rate according to 1991 Census and Tamil Nadu had a 63 per cent literacy rate.
1.11.6 The female literacy rate in rural areas of Madhya Pradesh is only 20, as against 31 for all-India; while in urban areas female literacy rate is 59 per cent, against 64 per cent for all-India. The performance of Madhya Pradesh, in case of female literacy in rural areas, is slightly better than that of Rajasthan (12 per cent), Bihar (18 per cent) and Uttar Pradesh (19 per cent).
1.11.7 Birth, Death and Infant Mortality Rates : The crude birth rate in Madhya Pradesh during 1997 at 31.9 is the third highest after Uttar Pradesh (33.5) and Rajasthan (32.1). It is much higher than the all-India average of 27.2 in that year. The crude birth rate in rural areas is still higher at 33.6 in Madhya Pradesh, as against 28.9 for all-India.
1.11.8 The crude death rate at 11.0 in Madhya Pradesh is the highest amongst 14 non-Special Category States. Even Uttar Pradesh has a slightly lower crude death rate of 10.3. The crude death rate in rural areas of Madhya Pradesh is still higher at 11.7, as against the all-India average of 9.6.
1.11.9 It is interesting to see that Kerala has a crude birth and death rates of only 17.9 and 6.2 respectively during this period, which is an indication of the lee-way to be covered by the lowincome States.
1.11.10 The infant mortality rate in Madhya Pradesh is 94 in 1997, which is lower than 96 of Orissa, but substantially higher than the all-India average of 71. It is definitely a far cry from 12 in Kerala; or even 51 in Punjab or 47 in Maharashtra.
1.11.11 Hospitals and Dispensaries : Lower medical coverage is definitely one of the causes of the high birth, death and infant mortality rates in the State. There are only two hospitals and dispensaries per thousand sq. kms. of area in Madhya Pradesh, as against 13 for the country as a whole. Orissa has three hospitals and dispensaries, while Bihar have four and Rajasthan two hospitals and dispensaries per thousand sq. kms. of area. Uttar Pradesh has a still better coverage with eight hospitals and dispensaries, while Punjab have 33 and Maharashtra have 37 hospitals and dispensaries per thousand sq. kms. of area. Kerala has the highest number of 103 hospitals and dispensaries per thousand sq. kms. of area.
1.11.12 The same is the case with hospital beds. Madhya Pradesh has 43 hospital beds per lakh of population, while the all-India average is 99. In Punjab there are 123 hospital beds per lakh of population, whereas in Maharashtra and Kerala the number of hospital beds per lakh of population is 191 and 299 respectively.